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how did shah abbas reform the government

The line of cities, which suffered from the Ottomanin vasions – Ordubad, Derbend and others-obtained the right of tax immunity, after re-occupation by Safavids state. The Afghan interlude was disastrous for Iran. Shah Rokh, Nādir Shah’s blind grandson, succeeded in maintaining himself at the head of an Afshārid state in Khorāsān, its capital at Mashhad. Ismāʿīl’s successor, Ṭahmāsp I (reigned 1524–76), encouraged carpet weaving on the scale of a state industry. During the appointment of beylerbeys, Shah Abbas I had to take into account the traditions and pretends of part of kizilbash nobility, which preserved their devotion to Safavids. Ê¿AlÄ« Mardān Khan, however, broke the compact and was killed by KarÄ«m Khan, who gained supremacy over central and southern Iran and reigned as regent or deputy (vakÄ«l) on behalf of the powerless á¹¢afavid prince, never arrogating to himself the title of shah. … Abbas I, who appointed more devoted and capable gulams to high military and administrative offices, was sure that they would serve to Safavids throne. He h But they could not attain this. Shah Abbas’s grandest achievement was his selection Famously down to earth, Shah Abbas kept an informal of Isfahan, a city located in the center of Iran, as the style, often mingling with the common people of Isfa- nation’s capital. Shah Abbas: 3rd Reform. The tax of chobanbeyi was liquidated, this tax had been collected by the head  of cattle and brought the benefit on the amount of 20 thousand tumans. These activities coincided with an escalated debate between ShiÊ¿i scholars in Iran and Iraq over the role played by the clergy in interpreting Islamic precepts. Regional vezir subordinated to the great vezir of the state. Intriguers, ambitious for influence in a subsequent reign, supported one prince against another. The utilized weapon-tufeng was well-known in Safavids troop for the whole 16th century. The creation of new troops, which basically was constituted by settled Iranian population happened in the first years of Shah Abbas I’s reign. Especially, the size of state and Shah lands extended, at the expense of which, the bouerochratic and military-feudal office of the administration in Safavids state were kept. At the result of centralization policy of Safavids state at the end of 16th –beginnig of 17th centuries, which was directed to the liquidation of feudal strife, the amount of state and Shah lands increased. This bouerocrachy conducted civil issues, led economic and financial affairs. [1]Abbas came to the throne during a troubled time for Iran. But on Nādir Shah’s death his great military machine dispersed, its commanders bent on establishing their own states. Shah Abbas: 2nd Reform. Safavids state abolished or reduced several taxes in various regions. A strong á¹¢afavid state and the presence of influential AkhbārÄ« scholars at first managed to suppress the execution of these ideas, but the complete collapse of central authority in Iran during the 18th century accelerated the already considerable involvement of the clerisy in state and civil affairs, a trend that would continue until modern times. Official salary supplied only part of their expences, that is why during peaceful times, the tufengchies were sent to their houses, where they were engaged in agriculture. We should mention that the admisitrative reform of Shah Abbas was incompleted as his central policy. Generally, in 1598, the population of Persian Irag was liberated from the payment of taxes on the amount of 100 thousand tumans. Abbas created a more structured government system providing opportunities for many in the empire to gain political and economic positions. The Qājār chief, therefore, disposed of this post-Nādir Shah Afghan remnant in northwestern Iran but was himself unable to make headway against a new power arising in central and southern Iran, that of the Zands. They acted under the leadership of masters-topchies. When Shah Abbas I came to Safavids throne, the social confrontation of kizilbash tribes had been deepened. In 1578, Abbas' father became Shah of Iran. Sultans were appointed by central government, but they also subordinated to beylerbey. Palgrave Macmillan: 488 pp., $30. He concentrated on Fārs and the centre but managed to contain the Qājār in Māzanderān, north of the Elburz Mountains. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. It was necessary to create such forces, which would be able to prevent them. Special detachment of Isfahan tufengchies also joint to him by the order of Shah. Abbas the Great or Abbas I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered as one of the greatest rulers of Persian history and the Safavid dynasty. After the returning of territories,which were occupied according to Istanbul treaty of 1590, the number of such provinces – beylerbeyliks reached to 13: Kandagar, Shirvan, Herat, Tabriz, Chukhursaad, Karabakh, Astrabad, Fars, Gilan, Kerman, Merv, Meshed and Kazvin. The keeping of provincial forces, which were the feudal militia, showed that the military reform of Shah Abbas did not complete entirely. The assembly deposed Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty, and amended Iran’s 1906 constitution to allow selection of Reza Pahlavi. When Shah Abbas I came to the throne in 1587 (he was called the “Great” later), the internal situation of Safavids state was hard as the foreign political circumstances. They brought salary with money from state Treasury, but the money approximately always was exchanged with natural items. He was relied on the solution of important issues. There occurred popular uprisings in different parts of Safavids state in the 70-80s of the 16th century; in 1571-1573, there happened antifeudal uprising of craftsmen and the poverty of city in Tabriz, in 1577, there began uprising in Shirvan, in 1580, there occurred peasant uprisings in Talish, Gilan, Khorasan. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The two also agreed that the popular AbÅ« al-Fatḥ would retain his position as governor of Eá¹£fahān, Ê¿AlÄ« Mardān Khan would act as regent over the young puppet, and KarÄ«m Khan would take to the field in order to regain lost á¹¢afavid territory. Shah Abbas often prosecuted them. The progress of socio-economic and political development of the Safavids state gave chance to Shah Abbas to realize administrative reform. Az ízek és hangulat fokozását olasz és magyar borok segítik. Among the troops, created by Shah Abbas I, we can mention these: the corpus of musketeers- tufengchies, Guard’s corpus of gulams (slaves-kullar), the corpus of gunners (topchiyan). The monarch continued the policy begun under his predecessors of eradicating the old Sufi bands and ghulāt extremists whose support had been crucial in building the state. In 1590, Shah Abbas had to conclude Istanbul peace treaty with Turkey and ceded the Eastern Georgia, Chukhur-Saad, Shirvan, Azerbaijan (expect in Ardebil and Talish), most part of Luristan and a part of Western Iran with the city of Hamadan to the Ottoman Empire. All these measures were applied in order to facilitate the condition of peasants and city-dwellers, to improve the economy of the state, to rely on the support of Iranian settler population and weaken the power of kizilbash aristocracy. Consequently, according to above-mentioned evidences, we can say that, military-political power in the state had been completely in the hands of Azerbaijan (Turkish) military nobility before Shah Abbas’s reform; Persians and representatives of other ethnic groups were engaged in financial, trial issues and clerical office. So, Khorasan was re-occupied. There were existed such chathegories of feudal land ownership in the 16th-17th centuries as: “araziy-i-divani” – state lands, khasse of Shahs, vaqf properties of Shiite clergy, mulk-land property of Shiite clergy, mulk-land possession on the right of private property. Iran - Iran - Shah Ê¿Abbās I: The á¹¢afavids were still faced with the problem of making their empire pay. Then, there were directed the detachments of gunners-casters, who prepared new guns under the walls of the besieged fortress. The realization of centralized policy demanded from Safavids Shahs to weaken the pillar of kizilbash nobility – feudal tribal troops. They hadn’t already been the single military force, their main functions passed to regular troops, which were provided with weapons, as well as to gulams. At the end of Abbas’s reign, many gulams reached to the highest positions and influence in Safavids state. Administrative reform began to be realized at the beginning of Shah Abbas’s coming to the throne. The á¹¢afavids were still faced with the problem of making their empire pay. The taxes, collected from craftsmen and merchants were decreased. The progress of socio-economic and political development of the Safavids state gave chance to Shah Abbas to realize administrative reform. They were killed so he could reform areas of the government that they controlled. Muḥammad KarÄ«m Khan Zand entered into an alliance with the BakhtyārÄ« chief Ê¿AlÄ« Mardān Khan in an effort to seize Eá¹£fahān—then the political centre of Iran—from Shah Rokh’s vassal, AbÅ« al-Fatḥ BakhtyārÄ«. The á¹¢afavids had earlier moved their capital from the vulnerable TabrÄ«z to QazvÄ«n. The number of court kurchies equaled to 4,5 thousand men in the eve of Shah Tahmasib I’s death; each of them possessed from 5 to 50 mulazums and mekers (military servants) according to their own positons. There was gained decisive victory over Uzbeks near Herat in 1597-1598s. The study of legal theory (fiqh), the purview of the mujtahids, became the primary field of scholarship in the ShiÊ¿i world, and the rise of the mujtahids as a distinctive body signaled the development of a politically conscious and influential religious class not previously seen in Islamic history. With regard to the first, Reza Shah did indeed lay down the foundations without which a modern state could not function. He kept Āghā Muḥammad Khan Qājār a hostage at his court in ShÄ«rāz, after repulsing Muḥammad Ḥasan Qājār’s bids for extended dominion. From Encyclopaedia Britannica of Afghans, Ṭahmāsp I ( reigned 1524–76 ), encouraged carpet weaving on the ground centralization. Issues, led economic and financial affairs to many Christian groups stories right... A more structured government system providing opportunities for many in the government marched the. 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